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Essay writing university - Writing your essay- Essay writing- LibGuides at University of Reading


Use the following checklist for each assignment as a guide to improving your own writing ability. Remember that practice will help you to improve your writing.

Make sure, however, that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary as this reduces the impact of the argument you have developed in your essay. If so, when is the best time in the essay to do this?


start writing and see what develops summarize each intended paragraph in one line, and see how they relate to the question write a series of separate paragraphs one for each area you want to cover, each on a separate piece of paper, and then try to order them leave the introduction and conclusion until you ve written the rest of the essay a strong favourite 2. Therefore, essays are by nature concise and require clarity in purpose and direction. Slide 7 Advisor speaks Now let s try and identify the essential elements to a paragraph by looking at an example taken from our assignment question. For example Look at the following essay questions, all on the same subject a Tourism today is quite unlike tourism in 1900. Compare Show the similarities between two sets of information or arguments. It is often useful to let someone else read it and listen to their comments, as well as reading it through out loud to yourself.

It can engage your readers, and can give them confidence that you have thought carefully about the title, and about how you are going to address it.

Additional Information About Yourself or Your Circumstances Optional Maximum length 200 words You are not required to write anything in this section, but you may include additional information if something has particular significance to you.


This is a classic case of a puristic proscription that bears little connection to the way most people talk and write. However, when writing an essay, it can also be difficult to come up with a point of view early on. The term essay is used broadly for many different kinds of papers. Research You will then need to find some research based on the topic which can include text books, journal articles, conference papers etc. What final impression do you want your readers to have? You can split arguments into multiple paragraphs you can have multiple introductory paragraphs you don t have to regurgitate your thesis in the conclusion and you can even counteract arguments within your paper. In most instances, your points should be supported by some form of evidence from your readings or examples drawn from the subject area. Conclusion TRANSCRIPT- Writing a Conclusion by David Sotir Slide 1 Advisor speaks Welcome to this online video tutorial brought to you by HELPS. And be cautious in your use of humor, if you must use it! The Structure of an Essay In general, written assignments require you to include introductory paragraph s and concluding paragraph s as well as a body containing any number of supporting paragraphs. Here are some examples of the critical analytical language that you can use as your own internal voice when you present other people s ideas Phrase How your voice is included It has been argued Smith Jones, 2010 that Pointing out what has been said by an external source As Smith and Jones 2010 note Showing your agreement with the external source However, Smith and Jones 2010 fail to address Showing that you recognise the limitations of the source Seemingly, Smith and Jones 2010 have Showing you have tentative support for the external source On the other hand, Smith and Jones 2010 argue that Showing that there is a contrast with a previous argument you have included Smith and Jones 2010 assert that Showing that the position of the external source is strong but you are likely to have doubts about it It has been suggested that Smith Jones, 2010 Brown Culbertson, 2005 Lloyd Giggs, 2004 Showing that you recognise a number of authors have reached a similar conclusion, and you might might not agree with it One advantage of the work of Smith and Jones 2010 Showing that you are positively engaging with an external source Let s look at one of the paragraphs from the chocolate essay to see how the text is an interplay of the internal voice of the writer and the external voices of other authors.

There is research and thinking to do first and putting words on the page is only part of the task. Related Information Copyright 2007, Studyhood Ltd.


Most professors would prefer to see you correct a typo with a pen than to assume you were careless enough not to catch it. Prove Show if something is true and demonstrate how you reached that conclusion. All the videos have captions that you can view on YouTube. Being able to analyze the various factors that can shape a particular situation is an important skill to acquire. That s the difference between a 60-something essay and a 70-something essay.

In most instances, your points should be supported by some form of evidence from your readings or examples drawn from the subject area.

Imagine a reader, then try to predict their objections to your argument, and then demonstrate why they are wrong. In addition to just science, I am drawn to State University for other reasons. Plagiarism means using someone else s words, ideas or diagrams without

Consumption of chocolate is something that many enjoy, and there is evidence Parker, Parker, Brotchie, 2006 that high carbohydrate foods such as chocolate do have a feel good effect. Look at the same paragraph re-written, with the amount of the writer s voice substantially reduced Here the writer is not in charge of the paragraph, and it reads a little like a list.

Thesis chocolate may be enjoyable but not healthy. If you decide to use a numbering style, please use the Microsoft Word numbering tools, as these will present the numbers in the most suitable manner. The opposite viewpoint is discussed by Johnston 2012 who claims.

Finally, your concluding statement should articulate your voice or opinion. It s helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask when encountering your thesis. An assignment requiring a literature review or research review may be asking you to choose a specific topic and then to read journal articles written by experts about their own research.


Part of what you need to learn consists of relationships among ideas., a focal statement, thesis statement, purpose statement, or hypothesis.


What the question is about explain your interpretation of the question and what it is asking you to do. ANU scientists have designed a nano crystal that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create light-weight night-vision glasses. There should be no new information in the conclusion and keep references to an absolute minimum. Shorter words are often preferable to longer words, unless there is some specific vocabulary that you need to include to demonstrate your skill.


Don t just start writing, and hope that it will work out first time many people find that their ideas and arguments develop during the process of planning and or writing. Your assignment feedback will inform you of the grading criteria applied. My statistical training in psychology orientates me toward a more quantitative graduate experience. Feel free to drop in and have a talk to one of our advisors at any time.

A verdict or judgement in answer to the question set should be considered.


No specific correlation found in literature Beckett, 2008 Lambert, 2009.


Yet the potential benefits of flavanols in chocolate are currently offset by the high fat carbohydrate content of most forms of chocolate.


Please feel free to drop in and have a talk to one of our Advisors at any time.


The reader needs to know at all times whose voice they are hearing.

Headings Headings and sub-headings should be in Arial font. Spending time improving your skills now certainly won t be time wasted. If you do use quotations, they should be enclosed in quote marks like this. They are based on the writing retreats pioneered by Rowena Murray as well as on informal Shut Up and Write sessions. Step 2 Look critically at your draft Which ideas could you develop or remove? Conclusion The conclusion reaffirms the thesis statement and summarises the key points of the arguments that have presented in the body paragraphs. A discussion is usually longer than an explanation, as you need to present evidence and state which argument is more persuasive. Do not pretend you have the final truth, whatsoever! However, chocolate s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested by the title.

Highlight parts of photocopied texts and make notes in the margin to remind yourself why you think this section is important. The page is authorised by Deputy and Vice-President Corporate Services.


Indulgence or addiction are the boundaries unclear?


Introduction Background information about the problem Description of the problem and why it is serious Overview of the solutions to be outlined Body paragraphs paragraph 1 Topic sentence outlining first solution Explanation of the positive and negative aspects of the solution Evidence to support explanations Concluding sentence paragraph 2 Topic sentence outlining second solution Explanation of the positive and negative aspects of the solution Evidence to support explanation Concluding sentence Following body paragraphs These follow the same structure for as many solutions as you need to discuss Conclusion Summary of the problem and overview of the solutions Evaluation of solutions and recommendation of best option Cause and effect essay Examples of this type of essay include questions which ask you to state or investigate the effects or outline the causes of the topic. If you want to narrow down a very open-ended question, tell your reader that you are doing this in your introduction. Slide 4 Advisor speaks If you experience difficulty in structuring and developing your body paragraphs, you can always talk to a HELPS Advisor or one of our volunteers. If you can recognize and eliminate even one type of problem each time, you are on your way to becoming a more effective writer. Example Developed essay plan linear style Title Chocolate is a healthy food. You will need to engage critically with what has been written on the subject so that you explain the significance and importance of issues and examples. The three main sections of an essay are the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Include a reference in the text, where the words or ideas appear, and in a reference list at the end of the essay.


Try to create an introduction that captures the target reader and don t let the target reader second guess what you re trying to say.

The key to maximising the benefits of flavanols in chocolate appears to lie in the level of fats present. Criticise Evaluate an argument or a text to see if it is good.

New slide Advisor speaks In a previous online tutorial video we introduced you to a real-life assignment question and talked about how to structure the introduction to an essay. It can be stressful and very difficult trying to work out solely in your mind how to tackle an essay title asking yourself questions such as What structure should I use?

Slang and jargon should not be used and long, rambling sentences should be avoided. This does not mean that essays are a regurgitation of everything your lecturer has said throughout the course. An introduction usually ends with some sort of statement of your focus e.


In the end, although the days were long and hard, my work that summer filled me with pride.

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