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Parts of a research paper - Writing a Research Paper From the Parts to the Whole

number your tables as well see the reference text for details Place figures and tables, properly numbered, in order at the end of the report clearly distinguish them from any other material such as raw data, standard curves, etc. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way Snow as cited in Milgram, 1963 argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts.

The variable that changes in response to that manipulation is referred to as a dependent variable. To make a paper readable Print or type using a 12 point standard font, such as Times, Geneva, Bookman, Helvetica, etc.

If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized. I was stuck in finding a conclusion for my project. Title page we have to know that the first impression rests forever so, we have to be careful with the presentation or the format in which the title page is presented. Yet, as Beardsley explains, even though most scientists don t think intelligent design can explain the existence of life, a quarter of the biology teachers in Kansas favor teaching creationism and evolution side by side in the science class Beardsley, 32. These are highly related theories and principles that were established and proven by authorities refers to the set of interrelated construct, definitions, and prepositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena Theoretical Framework an organized body that explains what has been done and what has been said on the topic or problem being investigated.


The writer will use the arguments of other Internet users to support the thesis that censorship or restrictions will undermine the power of the Internet. In keeping with the hourglass principle, you can expand on the topic later in the. This section should also discuss how the results relate to previous research mentioned in the literature review, any cautions about the findings, and potential for future research. for specific papers will provide additional suggestions. In the latter example we can easily see that the writer is against free music download because it affects negatively on the work of music industry and he is going to prove why in the main body. Highlight the importance of your study and how it may be able to contribute to and or help fill existing gaps in the field.

METHODOLOGY This section is where you will be providing the methods that you will be using in your research.


In other words, the reader has to have a clear idea in terms of the order of the information that he or she is going to read. Sometimes this will necessitate adding sentences or phrases to connect a paragraph or series of paragraphs back to the thesis sometimes a few connecting words like although, however, another example of this, or in spite of such findings will be sufficient. Another common use of square brackets to make a quotation fit smoothly into a sentence is the addition of square brackets around ed or s to indicate past tense or plural. 5 DATA ANALYSIS This section is where you will be analyzing the data that you have obtained from the methodological operation that you have chosen.

Must take all the evidences about the problem with the author s experiences. This aims to provide the readers or future researches with the basic terminologies that are important to understand the paper. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. But there s no need to be anxious with a research paper assignment! This section offers information on the range of other studies cited Does the author cite only his or her previous studies?

Present the rationale for why you chose specific experimental procedures. For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Writing a Research Paper From the Parts to the Whole Good research paper writing can be made much simpler than most people think provided a few important principles are kept in mind. Summarizing While the summaries you will incorporate into research papers are not usually as long as formal papers, you will use similar strategies when you write them, and you must avoid similar dangers. Organization and Structure Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. Depending on how unique or unorthodox the new method is, its validation probably should be established in a separate publication, published prior to submission of the main study.

The second line of each reference should be indented this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word. Such linking solutions are now available for libraries Data provided are for informational purposes only. Note that a call for action is not essential to all conclusions. Stay focused on the research topic of the paper Use paragraphs to separate each important point except for the abstract Indent the first line of each paragraph Present your points in logical order Use present tense to report well accepted facts- for example, the grass is green Use past tense to describe specific results- for example, When weed killer was applied, the grass was brown Avoid informal wording, don t address the reader directly, and don t use jargon, slang terms, or superlatives Avoid use of superfluous pictures- include only those figures necessary to presenting results Title Page Select an informative title as illustrated in the examples in your writing portfolio example package.

The format of the references will match the format and style used in the paper.

The name of the researcher The date of submission School and also the department of the subject or field knowledge the research is about. In the case of a, if you have too many questions to cover in the method, you can always include a copy of the questionnaire in the. Research part It is the description of findings and their explanations.


Another example would be, in a paper about treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis, you could suggest making a donation to the World Health Organization or research foundations which are developing new treatments for the disease. As you see, all main components are preserved in the example above. Within each section and subsection, material should always be organized by topic from most to least important. It includes the research question posed, its significance, the methodology, and the main results or findings. This is the area that narrows your topic to time, place, and content.


You feel hooked, intrigued and eager to watch the story till the end.

Don t forget your references Once your research paper is finished, compile your reference list. More job opportunities for teens, especially those funded by state and local programs, would offer income for teens as well as productive work for the community. Close Close Close Close Close Research Concept Paper What is a Research Concept Paper? Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand your discussion of the results in this way, while others don t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data.


Reference page In this section are listed all the sources, materials, references used. You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.

Literature Cited Please note that in the introductory laboratory course, you will not be required to properly document sources of all of your information. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. In other words, the reader has to have a clear idea in terms of the order of the information that he or she is going to read. It includes the authors names, the titles of their works and the year of the publication of these works. When I research a topic, I may be interested in just the methods, a specific result, the or perhaps I just want to see a summary of the paper to determine if it is relevant to my study. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of significance. Reference page In this section are listed all the sources, materials, references used. Essentially, the Concept Paper acts as a proposal it allows the doctoral student the opportunity to define a research focus and obtain early feedback on the research idea. This section follows a particular format as APA, MLA or other specific format, allowing any interested researcher to follow up on the research. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.


A call to action in this research paper would be a follow-up statement that might be along the lines of Despite new efforts to diagnose and contain the disease, more research is needed to develop new antibiotics that will treat the most resistant strains of tuberculosis and ease the side effects of current treatments.


It must impress with a strong content, good style, and general aesthetic appeal. Research Paper Sections- Writing an Education Research Paper- Libraries at Boston College Ask us anything!, in retrospective, you believe including a particular question in a survey instrument could have revealed additional data.


If the paper is long, it is a good idea to partition the body into sections using headings and sub-headings.


On the last part of this part you must have a statement how this old published material helps the researcher in their current study and relate it to your study. Style Use past tense except when referring to established facts. I was stuck in finding a conclusion for my project. Bibliography There could not be a complete a research paper without including this section.

Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. There is an assumption that this is the hardest part of research paper completion. Paraphrase also helps readers follow the argument, because they don t have to adjust from one prose style to another, which is what happens to your readers when you quote. And the third one is that it gives an overview of what you research paper is composed of and what are its various sections. A thesis is a narrowed, focused view on the topic at hand.

Even if the topic of the paper is of personal significance for you, you should not indicate as much in your paper.


If you feel frustrated now, that s how other scholars feel when you don t cite sources!


Sometimes the beginning isn t the best place to start. Final paragraph Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. The summary must be in your own phrases and sentences.


It can be quite difficult to find a good balance between the and the section, because some findings, especially in a or, will fall into a grey area.

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